The area that forms current Mahbubnagar has held historic significance. The region was at the core of the Satavahana dynasty from 221 BC to 218 AD, and also a large part of the Chalukya dynasty from the 5th to the 11th century AD. The region was later part of the Kingdom of Golkonda (c. 1364 – 1512 AD), with its capital city Golkonda located near Hyderabad.
In 1518 it came under control of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, which reigned until 1687. The region was then a part of Hyderabad State, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty, from 1724 to 1948. Mahbubnagar was most likely an historically Buddhist area, as many historic temples were destroyed by the Asaf Jahi rulers. There are no Buddhist temples remaining, however Mahbubnagar district became independent along with Hyderabad and joined the democratic state of India on 18 September 1948.